The treatment of the cancer is multidisciplinary, the different therapies get together to provide a plan of treatment that increases the possibilities of healing. This treatment plan is established following protocols that are used of form generalized in all the hospitals. Here you will find information about the different options of treatment, the most frequent side effects and orientation on how confronting them.
ELECTION OF THE TREATMENT
The treatment of the cancer is multidisciplinary, that is to say, the different therapeutic forms get together to provide to the patient the plan of treatment more suitable that allows to increase the possibilities of healing of the illness.
Generally in the treatment of the cancer a few protocols follow. There are a set of norms and rules (plan of treatment) that are established, being based on the scientific experience, for the treatment of an illness. These protocols, which are used of form generalized in all the hospitals, gather the indications or limitations of the treatment according to a series of factors:
Related to the tumor:
The type of tumor
The location and the size
The affectation of the ganglions or of other organs
Related to the patient:
The general health state
Other important illnesses
The desire of the proper patient
The main treatment forms are: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although also another type of specific therapies can be administered for some tumors like the hormonoterapia, the immunotherapy, the treatment with laser, etc.
The surgery is usually the main treatment for certain tumors. A few decades ago it was an aggressive treatment, since its purpose was to eliminate the tumor with the biggest quantity of healthy textile of around for eliminating all the tumor cells.
At present, with the development of new surgical skills, it is possible to take control of satisfactory form of multitude of patients, preserving, most of the times, the organ where there was settling the tumor and its function (conservative surgery). It is indicated in the cancers that they have not spread to other organs. Also it has a very important role in the diagnosis and extension study of the illness. According to its targets it can be:
Preventive: it is used to extirpate injuries that with the time can become malignant.
Diagnostics: a textile sample is extirpated to analyze it to the microscope (biopsy) and to discard or to confirm that the injury should be a cancer.
Of estadiaje: it allows to know the extension of the tumor.
Curative: the whole tumor is extirpated with healthy textile of around. Its intention is to treat the cancer.
Palliative: it is used to treat some complication of the tumor and to diminish the symptoms that it causes.
Repairer: its target is to restore the appearance and/or the function of an organ after the achievement of the curative surgery.
Before any surgery it is necessary to realize a preoperative study. It consists of a blood test, an electrocardiogram, a radiography of thorax and a consultation with the anesthetist who will value the risk of the intervention and the most stated type of anesthesia.
Also, after the explanations of the surgeon, the patient has to sign an informed assent, where all the information about the surgery consists reflected. In him he declares to have received and understood the above mentioned explanations.
The side effects of the surgery will change according to the location of the tumor, although certain effects are personal details to any location as it can be the pain for the surgical wound.
For more information it consults the treatments paragraph.
Approximately six of every ten patients of cancer receive radiotherapy as important part of its treatment. Partner can be administered to other therapies (surgery and/or chemotherapy) or like the only treatment.
According to how is the radiation administered the radiotherapy can be of two types:
Day pupil: it consists of the administration of the radiations from the exterior by means of a few teams that generate the radiation (linear gas pedals). Never they contact with the patient. Before initiating the treatment, it is necessary to realize a planning or simulation of the same one. In her there decide the area of treatment, the entire dose, the number of meetings in which there is distributed the above mentioned dose and the most correct position in which one will place the patient. Most of the times the meetings are administered for five days a week, resting two. This rest generally coincides in order to week.
The administration of the treatment is not painful. In no case the patient expresses radiations.
He interns: it consists of the administration of the radiation across materials radioactive (isotopes) with different forms, which get in the organism, very next or in contact with the tumor. To carry out the implant it is necessary to administer some type of anesthesia. A light inconvenience can be appreciated in the area of the implant, although, generally, it disappears a few days after finishing the treatment.
Once the radioactive materials are extracted the patient does not express any type of radiation.
The side effects of the radiotherapy are less and less frequent and more tolerable in consequence, fundamentally, to the progress of the used skills. They will depend, to a great extent, on the area where the treatment is administered.
The treatment with radiotherapy is always individualized. Every patient will have its specific treatment, different from that of another patient.
It is one of the therapeutic forms most used in the treatment of the cancer. Its target is to destroy, using a big medicines variety, the cells that compose the tumor in order to reduce and/or to eliminate the illness.
To the medicines used in this type of treatment they are named antineoplastic medicines or quimioterápicos.
This treatment is administered in the shape of cycles. A cycle consists of the administration of the medicines during one or several days, followed by a variable time of rest, which usually ranges between one and four weeks.
Depending on the type of cancer and of the medicines that they go to use, the chemotherapy can be administered in the shape of pills (for oral route) or injecting the medication into an (intravenous) vein.
Generally, when the treatment is administered by intravenous route, the patient comes to the day hospital for its administration. After a few hours, this one can go away to its domicile up to the next cycle, and keep on realizing the same type of life as before initiating the chemotherapy.
The entire duration of the treatment and its side effects depend on a series of factors as there are the type of tumor, the answer of the tumor to the treatment and the type of used chemotherapy.
There exist other therapies than, although with less frequency, they are used in the treatment of the cancer. Generally they are indicated in tumors or very concrete circumstances of the illness.
Some of these therapies are the following ones:
Hormonoterapia: it is used in those tumors that grow for the stimulus of some hormone. To these cancers they are named hormone-dependent and more representators are that of breast and that of prostate. This form consists of the employment of certain hormones to stop or to diminish the growth of the tumor. You will be able to find more information in the treatments paragraph.
Immunotherapy: it is a treatment that consists of using the system of defense (immune system) to destroy the tumor cells. This is obtained well stimulating the proper immune system or introducing in the organism substances prepared in a laboratory, similar to those of the immune system, capable of controlling the illness.
Radiotherapy intraoperatoria: it consists of the administration of the radiation during the same surgery, straight of the area of the tumor. It is used in the treatment of abdominal tumors. With this skill the radiation dose diminishes in the normal textiles.
Radiotherapy esterotáxica: it consists of the administration, of very precise form, of high doses of radiation in very small areas. It usually use in the treatment of very small cerebral tumors.
Surgery with laser: it consists of the emission of a beam of very powerful light and focused, that allows the destruction of the tumor. It is used in the treatment of premalignant injuries or like palliative treatment in some tumors.
Crioterapia: it consists of the destruction of the tumor for cold, using liquid nitrogen. Generally it is used in the treatment of premalignant injuries or in the treatment of some tumors in very located phases.